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2014년 11월 26일 (수) 1시 48분 26초 -0800EN-GBalumniemail@example.com (동양 의학의 태평양 대학)아카이브 2011
http://www.pacificcollege.edu/ko/acupuncture-massage-news/om-essay-contest/om-essay-contest-2011/1117-acne-and-diet-by-alex-garcia-osuna.htmlAcne is the most common skin condition in the United States. It affects between seventeen and forty-five million people. It is a condition that affects the skin over areas of the body with large oil glands, causing clogged pores and lesions. (2) These lesions can take the form of whiteheads, blackheads, pimples, and cysts. Whiteheads are caused by bulging follicle heads, while blackheads are plugs composed of oil and dead skin cells that are open to the surface. Pimples are infected, inflamed raised red spots with white centers, and cysts are caused by blockages and inflammation deep inside of the hair follicles.(3,14)
Acne lesions form due to an overproduction of sebum, irritation of hair follicles due to irregular shedding of skin cells, and an overgrowth of bacteria. However, the exact cause of acne is not known. There are many conditions that are thought to influence the overproduction of sebum. In teens, androgens are mainly involved in the activation of the sebaceous glands and overproduction of sebum. Family history of acne and contact with oils and grease are also important. In adults, hormonal imbalances (e.g. cessation of oral contraceptives), and some medications are recognized as additional important factors.(3,14,18)
Acne is not considered to be a serious health threat (2,20). However, severe acne can cause permanent damage to the skin, leaving the patient both physically and emotionally scarred. Furthermore, the most common conventional allopathic treatments, which employ the use of both topical and oral medications such as antibiotics and isotretinoin, can be the source of further grief because of their potentially serious side effects. (2,8,10,11,13,14)
Even though scientists admit that there is no cure for acne and the reasons why acne develop cannot be fully explained, many insist that diet does not play a role.(3,4,14,15,17) This is despite the fact that patients are generally advised to stop eating specific foods that aggravates the condition.(4,15,17) In addition, a recent study suggests that the typical western diet, which is high is refined carbohydrates, causes a permanent increase in insulin that leads to an increase in hormone levels. These increased hormone levels stimulate sebaceous secretions and in turn causes clogged pores, the growth of bacteria, and the formation of acne.(17)
In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) there are at least six different patterns that can cause acne. The most basic or common would be toxic heat, and clearing heat from the appropriate channel or organ can provide relief for some patients, but not all. Identifying the correct pattern is the key to providing individualized treatments.(11,12,16,18)
Although acne is mainly treated with herbal medicine in TCM, dietary imbalances are thought to play a role both in its etiology and treatment.(1,11,17) Lifestyle advice, including dietary recommendations, are given when treating a patient with acne. Treatments focus on the root of the problem, not just the branch. When using TCM properly, not only can the condition be treated effectively, but also side effects can be kept to a minimum and the overall health of the patient can be improved.
General Dietary Recommendations
Dietary Recommendations for acne sufferers include eating a healthy diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables, supplementation with certain vitamins and minerals, drinking sufficient amounts of water, and staying away from foods which may exacerbate the condition. A general TCM dietary approach includes foods that drain dampness and are cooling in nature.
A vegetarian diet is a good place to start for many acne patients. Androgens are thought to be responsible for the production of sebum. When hormones are out of balance as a result of eating meat which also contains hormones and other similar substances, acne may develop.(5) Whole foods, fiber, fresh vegetables and fruits are preferred. Vegetables in include those that are rich in beta-carotene such as carrots, winter squash and pumpkin. The provitamin A and beta-carotene foods are thought to be especially beneficial if there is inflammation.(7,12)
Greens such as dandelion greens, beet greens, spinach, kale, chard, celery, and watercress are beneficial for individuals with acne. In addition, wild blue-green and spirulina (both micro-algae) are helpful. Seaweeds are cooling and detoxifying, and are therefore also recommended. These greens are rich in chlorophyll, which is thought to purify the blood and therefore reduce the toxins that cause acne lesions.(12) Other foods that can be freely added to the diet include mung beans, adzuki beans, and unpeeled cucumber slices. These drain dampness and clear heat.(12)
A diet free of processed and refined foods is also recommended. Acne sufferers should avoid refined sugar, spicy, fatty, fried foods, margarine, and other foods containing hydrogenated vegetable oils. Chocolate, caffeine, soda, iodine-rich foods, citrus fruits, oysters, herring, and shrimp, milk and milk products and/or wheat can aggravate acne conditions in some people. If milk products are needed in the diet, those from goat’s milk are considered the best choice for those with skin diseases. In addition, drinking plenty of water can help keep the skin sufficiently hydrated and help maintain bowel regularity.(6,7,12,20)
Deficiencies in essential fatty acids and faulty metabolism of fats have been linked to acne in cases of hormone-related acne. This is the reason why fried foods and hydrogenated oils should be avoided, and also why fish such as salmon and sardines, flax and sunflower seeds, which are good sources of essential fatty acids, should be added to the diet.(5,12,20) Omega-3 fatty acids in particular are thought to reduce inflammation.(8) When using oil for cooking or for salads, unrefined sesame oil is best.(12)
Vitamins and Minerals
People with severe forms of acne have been shown to have low serum levels of Vitamin A, a fat-soluble vitamin that is needed to maintain hormonal balance, and which may also therefore help lower the production of sebum. High doses of Vitamin A can have toxic side-effects, including birth defects, so intake should be carefully monitored. Since Vitamin E, beta-carotene and Zinc are all needed for the formation of Vitamin A, these should also be added to the diet. Absorption of Vitamin A can be increased by eating a healthy diet that is free of unhealthy fats like margarine, hydrogenated oils, and processed food. Vitamin A is found in carrots, green leafy vegetables, and yellow/orange fruits.(5,20)
Vitamin B6 is particularly effective in acne cases.(5) Vitamin B6 may help improve acne associated with menses. This is because it is the proper metabolism of steroid hormones requires adequate amounts of B6. Vitamin B6 can also make the skin less sensitive to the effects of testosterone.(20)
Zinc in the form of zinc gluconate or zinc sulfate is associated with improved complexion in acne sufferers. Zinc may help prevent acne, help heal acne lesions, reduce inflammation, and decrease the effects of androgens on the skin. It is thought that low levels of zinc, lead to an increase in the production of androgens. Zinc can be found in whole grains, brazil nuts, pumpkin seeds, and brewer’s yeast.(5,20)
As simple carbohydrates are consumed, levels of chromium decrease. It is estimated that 90% of the population is deficient in chromium. Supplementation with chromium in such people has been shown to improve acne conditions.(5)
Selenium is a trace element has been shown to improve acne conditions and the associated scarring when coupled with vitamins A and E.(5)
Acne is the most common skin condition in the United States. Its cause cannot be explained clearly by western science, and treatments with conventional pharmaceuticals can have deleterious side-effects. Such treatments should be employed as a last resort. It is not only the prudent but also the ethical choice to seek out other ways of treating acne. An individualized treatment approach that includes dietary recommendations may be just as effective as pharmaceuticals and should be explored first.
firstname.lastname@example.org (게일 보그)OM 에세이 경연 대회 2011목, 23시 29분 21초 -0700 2012 년 5 월 17 일아카이브 2011
http://www.pacificcollege.edu/ko/acupuncture-massage-news/om-essay-contest/om-essay-contest-2011/908-qchinese-medical-terminology-a-students-perspectiveq-by-micah-arsham.htmlBy Micah Arsham
This essay grew out of a series of online discussions that were part of Medical Chinese classes offered at PCOM. The discussion forums centered on translation issues facing contemporary scholars and were led by Robert Damone and Sonya Boynton-Pritzker.
At the Pacific Symposium 2008 in San Diego, publisher and translator Bob Flaws remarked that, ‘it has yet to be seen if Chinese medicine has a future in this country.’ As part of the first generation of Americans to practice and teach Chinese medicine, Flaws gave one piece of advice to today’s students—learn Chinese. Specifically, one must know medical Chinese to access not only primary sources but also a specific way of conceptualizing the practice of medicine. There is a glass ceiling to learning entirely from secondary sources, yet many students never read a primary text in their preparation for licensure. Are students missing something critical? If the unique nature of Chinese medicine is grounded in language, then our relationship to and understanding of Chinese medical terms has direct clinical importance. The language of Chinese medicine draws upon poetic imagery and metaphor to form a technical jargon. Is literary analysis, therefore, a tenable way to seek clinical truth? How much Chinese, if any, does one need to know to practice Chinese medicine well? Does it help the clinical decision-making process to have a deep knowledge of the etymology and history of terms? Do better translations of Chinese and other East Asian texts yield better clinicians? CONCEPT ACQUISITION It is easy to have a perfunctory knowledge of Chinese medical terms, and it is also easy to misinterpret them. As a student accumulates conceptual understanding, the process depends on the language used to define terms. Some terms are more accessible than others. For instance, “jumping-round phlegm” is actually tuberculosis of the hip joint, but without looking it up or realizing the connection with GB-30 (Jumping Circle), one might misconceive the meaning. Often, we define terms only in English and do not reference the characters and/or pinyin. Translator Eric Brand has written about this phenomenon and the misunderstandings that ensue from an inaccurate and incomplete grasp of Chinese medical concepts: “[a]fter a generation or two of Western practice, some translation errors have come to be accepted as normal, and this leads to poor concept acquisition in a new generation of students.” Despite learning terms in translation and looking them up in A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine, many concepts remain ambiguous or obscure. Part of this problem is the lack of consistency in translation that is the basis for Nigel Wiseman and Paul Zmiewski’s call for term standardization, without which the student “will be completely at sea” (55). However, it seems less important to standardize the terms than to engage with them. In scholarly works, translators often put the original term in parenthesis after a translated term, especially if the term is unusual or technical. In this way, the author’s original word is immediately clear to the reader, without the intervention of the translator. Our textbooks should increase our knowledge of Chinese language, not assume that we have none. We need familiarity with Chinese terms themselves, not merely consistent translations. Standardization of terms, i.e. the codification of a technical language, is less about being dogmatic or overly academic than it is about raising the level at which we engage terminology.
There is tension today in how we speak about Chinese medicine among ourselves. This tension is ultimately a good thing, for it raises questions and urges us to be careful with language. More of a question is how best to speak about Chinese medicine with Western medical professionals and layperson audiences, such as our patients. The push for standardization is really a way to say, ‘wake up, understand these terms, it’s not as easy as you think….’ For this reason, Wiseman deliberately selects anachronistic and unusual terms to draw attention to the fact that Chinese medical language is a technical language. Wiseman elaborates that “[i]nsistence on the use of familiar expression as far as possible creates the impression that Chinese medicine is conceptually more familiar than it actually is” (“Not Just Words,” 8). An accurate, detailed, and habitual way to talk about Chinese medicine is needed. It is about getting the concepts right and knowing what words mean, in a technical and historical context. Is not Chinese medical terminology farther outside our ken than Western medical terminology?
Indeed, our conceptual understanding of terms often overlooks historical associations, ideological resonances, and affinities with certain doctors. This is the danger of textbooks that summarize and generalize information (let alone the study guides to which many students resort as a quick source of information). When we learn entirely from English sources, we often do not know when a concept or phrase is meant to evoke a specific author or school of thought. Thus, Wiseman and Zmiewski note that when a Chinese student reads, “han4 chu1 ji2 ji2 ran2” (“a constant stream of sweat”), this refers to a particular section of the Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage) (60). American students miss the allusion, for even if they think ‘big sweat, part of the four bigs,’ it is fundamentally different from knowing a line from the Shang Han Lun.
Similarly, the verbs used to explain physiological and pathological dynamics, as well as language describing treatment methods, are poorly and inconsistently translated. This leaves the student unsure of what words to use to talk about certain things. The language of pathomechanism relies on specific ways of expression for its authenticity. Without getting the vocabulary right, students may feel like they are making it up as they go along. Wiseman and Zmiewski call this category of words “conditionally stipulated terms,” and quantifies it as about two hundred ideograms (60). For instance, Wiseman and Feng differentiate various words to describe the effect of heat in the body; each has a distinct meaning. ‘Deflagrate’ (fen2) means to “burn fiercely; describes heat in the exuberant heat stage of warm disease” (121). ‘Deflagrate’ should be contrasted against kindred terms that describe the actions of heat in the body: ‘blaze’ (fan2), indicates the qi and construction levels are ‘both ablaze;’ ‘effulgent’ (wang4), refers to burning brightly (as in yin-vacuity fire); ‘stream’ (zheng1), is a gentle rising, as in steaming bone disease; ‘flame upward’ (shang4 yan2), produces upper body signs, as in liver fire flaming upward; ‘scorch’ (zhuo2), means to damage slightly by burning, as in the network vessels of the lung; and ‘condense’ (lian4), in which heat reduces fluids and produces phlegm. The non-Chinese student may not grasp these conceptual differences and so has less knowledge as a result. However, differentiating these terms is not merely an academic luxury. How much linguistic carelessness can we afford when prescribing Chinese pharmaceuticals? What we do in the clinic follows from our understanding of concepts, an understanding that is rooted in language.
Although A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine is a good start, much more scholarship is needed to trace the changes in medical concepts over time and through different regions of East Asia. Many times, historical usage lends nuance and connotation to language. Accordingly, language is the entry into understanding the thought process of another culture; the Chinese view of health and disease is inseparable from its description in language. Thus ethnographer Yanhua Zhang points out that understanding emotional disease (qingzhi) in contemporary Chinese medicine “is not ‘culturally bound,’ but certainly is ‘permeated with culture’” (1). What constitutes disease is tied to our cultural perceptions of disease, as they are expressed in language. In the West, we need to unfold terms and concepts as they are written about in primary sources. This is how we deepen our understanding of terms and bring this insight into a clinical setting. If we do not engage with these texts, we are creating something new—something that is not Chinese medicine but rather our interpretation of it. METAPHOR AND SYMBOLISM: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF LITERARY CRITICISM Chinese medical texts can be viewed as literary works: there are poems and songs to describe pulse images; many herbs have folk legends surrounding them; the body is viewed variously as a kingdom, a natural landscape, a society. How we speak of Chinese medicine really does matter: will we learn point names, not just their number? The Chinese view of anatomy traditionally describes body parts and relationships among them in an especially poetic way. Thus, the lung is a “florid canopy” and the intestinal tract contains the “dark gate” and “screen gate.” Structures like the gao huang, san jiao (triple burner), and mo yuan (membrane source) have no Western biomedical equivalent, and where we do draw strict parallels between Western anatomy and the Chinese view of the body, we lose part of the Chinese concept. Viewing the body in terms of yin and yang is finally a literary conceit. In this way, the raw power of Chinese medicine comes from a poetic view of the body and of disease processes.
In Chinese medicine, the basis of clinical application depends not only on empirical knowledge but also on conceptual deduction. Theory forms the basis of diagnosis and treatment. The examples of using the conceptual framework of Chinese medical theory to justify clinical decisions are manifold. For instance, Chinese Herbal Medicine: Formulas and Strategies cites the Convenient Reader of Established Formulas (1904), in which Zhang Bin-Cheng posits a Song-dynasty physician’s opinion that Ding Zhi Wan (Settle the Emotions Pill) treats near-sightedness:
“[The eyes] ability to see [what is] distant depends on their having fire. If one cannot see [what is] distant, this is due to lack of fire. The appropriate strategy is to tonify the Heart…. Even though the eyes are the orifices of the Liver, the Heart, too, attaches itself to the eyes. How is this? When the eyes perceive the characteristic quality [of something] and judge it to be good or bad, this [type of] complete knowing comes from the heart. Therefore, when the Heart lack the power to perceive distant [things], how can one cure this by way of a strategy [aimed at] enriching water and softening the Liver?” (467)
According to the above passage, the sovereign fire of the heart is finally responsible for vision, and to improve eyesight Ding Zhi Wan (Settle the Emotions Pill) may be given. In this way, the correct interpretation of a text justifies a formula’s clinical application. If we don’t get the words right due to translation errors or poor conceptual understanding, how can we explain certain applications of formulas? If literary theory is a way to approach clinical fact, being sensitive to language is absolutely necessary. Translators must take care to preserve what Wiseman calls the ‘cognitive aesthetic’ of a given text by staying close to the source.
WHAT IS GOOD TRANSLATION? Translation is an act, a force—it is matching one’s creativity against a text and trying to convey the essence of the original in another language. Cultural theorist Walter Benjamin (1892-1940) observes that there is always distance between the original and the translation: “While content and language form a certain unity in the original, like a fruit and its skin, the language of the translation envelops its content like a royal robe with ample folds” (Illuminations, 75). While translation is always a difficult project, the ‘royal robe’ of which Benjamin writes need not fit quite so loosely, to the point of unknowingly sacrificing our own conceptual understanding of Chinese medical terms. Translating Chinese medical literature is especially challenging, and many primary sources, both historical and modern, remain un-translated. Translations should be more widely funded, and we should value the position of Chinese medicine halfway between literature and science. It is not only through scientific inquiry but also through literary explication that the future of Chinese medicine can develop. Only then will we recognize and benefit from the unique value of Chinese medicine—a value that comes from a conceptual framework inextricable from the words used to describe it.
Works Cited Benjamin, Walter. “The Task of the Translator.” Illuminations. Schocken: NY, 1969.
Brand, Eric. “Clinical Implications of Accurate Translation: Will (Zhi) and the Kidney, Sinews and the Liver.” Blue Poppy Blog, June 18th, 2009. http://www.bluepoppy.com/blog/blogs/blog1.php/2009/06/18/clinical-implications-of-accurate-transl#more167
Scheid, Volker, et al., comp. and trans. Chinese Herbal Medicine: Formulas and Strategies. 2nd ed. Eastland: Seattle, 2009.
Wiseman, Nigel and Paul Zmiewski. “Rectifying the Names: Suggestions for Standardizing Chinese Medical Terminology.” Approaches to Traditional Chinese Medical Literature: Proceeding of an International Symposium on Translation Methodologies and Terminologies. Ed. Paul Unschuld. Kuwer: Dordrecht, 1989.
Wiseman, Nigel and Feng Ye. A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine. 2nd ed. Paradigm: Brookline, 1998.
Wiseman, Nigel. “The Transmission and Reception of Chinese Medicine: Language, the Neglected Key.” Clinical Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine 2: 29-36. http://www.paradigm-pubs.com/WisemanWork
Wiseman, Nigel. “Translation of Chinese Medical Terms: Not Just a Matter of Words.” Paradigm: 2001. Accessed online: http://www.paradigm-pubs.com/WisemanWork
Zhang, Yanhua. Transforming Emotions with Chinese Medicine: An Ethnographic Account from Contemporary China. SUNY: NY, 2007.
Micah Arsham attends the M.S.T.O.M. program at the San Diego campus. She holds a B.A. in dance from Columbia University and has studied German literature at Princeton University and the Freie Universität Berlin.
]]>email@example.com (캐슬린 Rushall)OM 에세이 경연 대회 20112010년 9월 2일 (목) 18시 45분 18초 -0700아카이브 2011
http://www.pacificcollege.edu/ko/acupuncture-massage-news/om-essay-contest/om-essay-contest-2011/878-wake-up-and-smell-the-acupuncture.htmlBy Esther Hornstein L.Ac., MSAc.
Have you been tossing and turning lately? You are not alone. As many of 50% of Americans have suffered problems sleeping at some time, and 10% of the population suffer from chronic insomnia. While it will come as no surprise that sleeplessness is a frequent byproduct of the many stresses in our daily lives, it is less widely known that 1.6 million Americans use Complimentary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) to treat their insomnia, generally with great success.
The Consequence of Sleep Deprivation One sleepless night can result in lethargy, irritability, disorientation and hypersensitivity. Long term sleep deprivation causes depression, anxiety, disrupts concentration and impairs normal day time functioning. Insomnia is a major cause of absenteeism and poor job performance. Sleepy drivers are blamed for half of all motor vehicle accidents. Recent research has brought evidence that chronic insomnia increases the risk of Diabetes, Heart Disease and Cancer.
Why Conventional Methods are not Good Enough The benefits of today’s pharmacological treatments for sleeplessness must be weighed against the drawbacks. These include questions about their long term effectiveness, the potential for abuse, addiction and adverse effects.
Psychological and behavioral therapies for sleeplessness are quite effective, but generally require a considerable investment in both time and patient training.
Because of the limitations of available conventional treatments, the rate of CAM use, and acupuncture in particular, for the treatment of insomnia jumped from 20.6% in 1990 to 26.4 in 1997 in the U.S.
What Is Acupuncture? Acupuncture is based on Oriental Medicine. It consists of the insertion of thin hair-like needles into the skin at locations called acu-points which are located throughout the body, from head to toe, including the ear. Each has one or more specific function and can be used by itself or in combination with other acu-points to achieve a desired effect including the treatment of a specific illness or improving some aspect of the patients wellness.
What Scientific Research Says Because Acupuncture has been around for over three thousand years, the ability to uniformly and objectively test the results by Western Medical standards is questionable. However, through the increasing acceptance and involvement of Oriental Medicine in the West, some researchers are able to find a balance between the highly subjective medicine that is Acupuncture and evidence based measures which are needed to sustain credibility among the American medical community. According to study published in Sleep (Vol. 32, No.8 2009) sleep quality, sleep onset, and total sleep time improved in 85% of the 60 subjects of the study. The results continued even one week after the study was completed. 30 of the subjects were administered tri-weekly electro-acupuncture treatments for 3 weeks. The placebo group had the same number of treatments, but with streitberger needles. Both groups reported marked improvement, while the electro-acupuncture group had only slightly better results. Side effects were reported as mild and both electro-acupuncture and placebo acupuncture were determined to be safe.
Another study published in the Chinese Medical Journal (Vol. 122, No.23 2009) reported results on 47 subjects with out any placebo control group, that electro-acupuncture considerably improved insomniacs_ sleep quality, sleep time and social function during the daytime. Electro-acupuncture also had repairing effects on the disruption of long term sleep patterns. At the same time, electro-acupuncture prolonged slow wave sleep (SWS) time and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time. There was no hangover, side effects, addiction or decreased alertness during the daytime. However, insomnia return rate was about 23% within one month. Both of these studies used different acu-points, treatment frequency and length, but their outcomes were quite similar. Acupuncture works for insomnia and it is proven to be safe.
How Acupuncture Works for Insomnia Acu-points are connected on the body through meridians which are non physical pathways beneath the skin. Through acupuncture, massage and other methods these points and thereby these meridians are stimulated. Each meridian connects to a different organ system. Stress related insomnia due to outside events like job loss or hospitalization usually go away once the source of the stress is gone. However if daytime sleepiness or fatigue interferes with daytime functioning, acupuncture can be helpful in alleviating these symptoms. The same is true for cases of insomnia due to depression or other mental disorders. Acupuncture has been proven to release endorphins like serotonin (happy hormone) and melatonin (sleepy hormone) from the body’s own system. Not only does acupuncture release these natural hormones, it also balances them. Therefore depressions due to chemical imbalances are relatively easily treated by acupuncture – with out drugs, with out unwanted side effects.
Those who have trouble sleeping due to pain that stops them from getting comfortable e.g.: arthritis, cancer, herniated discs, are in luck to. Among the top ten conditions successfully treated with acupuncture, muscular-skeletal pain is number one! Acupuncture works so well for local pain as well as systemic conditions like insomnia. When an acupuncture needle is inserted, the body instantly sends collagen and elastin to the site to heal the ‘mini trauma’ caused by the needle. As a result the tissues get stronger and more blood flows through the area. In most cases a well established treatment schedule will alleviate the pain and treat the root of the insomnia. As opposed to some medications which will help the patient sleep, but cause other health issues.
Some suffer from self inflicted sleep deprivation by making work or social events a priority over their own sleep needs. The acupuncturist’s role is to get that the patient to take a look at their life and try to re-prioritize lifestyle change and acupuncture. Many acu-points have psycho-emotional functions that won’t only change how the patient sleeps, but also how the patient feels. The overburdening of one’s shoulders with commitments to others is attributed to an imbalance in the “earth” organ system. Just like the earth, these people need to nurture everything and everyone around them, sacrificing their own needs in the process. Acu-points along the ‘earth’ organ meridians rectify the imbalance, and with proper treatment the patient will eventually re-learn to nurture him or herself in harmony with the needs of others around them.
In addition to not causing any adverse effect, acupuncture also mitigates side effects caused by necessary medications. Drug-related sleep disorders can result from chronic use of Central Nervous System stimulants, hypnotics, sedatives, chemotherapy, anticonvulsants, oral contraceptives, alcohol, and thyroid hormones. They can also cause irritability and apathy and reduce mental alertness. Many psychoactive drugs can induce abnormal movements during sleep. By balancing the hormones and sensory input acupuncture can relieve the side effects caused by these medications. Insomnia can develop during withdrawal of Central Nervous System depressants, tricyclic antidepressants, MAO inhibitors, or illicit drugs. Abrupt withdrawal from hypnotics or sedatives can cause nervousness, tremors, and seizures causing the patient not to sleep, or be fearful of sleeping. While working with the patient’s doctor a Licensed Acupuncturist can safely and effectively ease the experience of withdrawal from these substances while also stimulating healthier sleep.
Weather one chooses to treat insomnia with acupuncture or not, remember that it is important to develop good sleep hygiene. Do not consume stimulants like caffeine near bed time. Do not exercise right before bedtime or watch something exciting late at night. Try to keep regular sleep and wake patterns, getting a good night sleep is one of the best ways to get a new day started on the right foot.
http://www.cmj.org/Periodical/paperlist.asp?id=LW2009124418823804369&linkintype=pubmed]]>firstname.lastname@example.org (캐슬린 Rushall)OM 에세이 경연 대회 20112010년 9월 2일 (목) 16시 54분 59초 -0700아카이브 2011
http://www.pacificcollege.edu/ko/acupuncture-massage-news/om-essay-contest/om-essay-contest-2011/879-the-spine-a-biological-cosmology-of-the-universe.htmlBy Jorge A. Gonzalez
The parallelisms of the Spine as a biological cosmology of the universe, in its essence can be traced back to the Egyptian and Greek civilizations in the West and is continuous through Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and ancient Chinese belief systems. The theories developed over the centuries illustrates that Man via the spine can communicate with the earthly realm, as well as with the heavenly realm of the universe.
No matter which theology, belief system, or divine schema you use with the different traditions, each are represented with seven levels of consciousness, which travel in a upward hierarchy. In the lowest levels, these are represented by the animal consciousness, for example sexual reproduction, fertility, the realm of the physical. On the spine, the relative vertebreas or spinal regions are the tip of the coccyx and hiatus of the sacrum. This area represents the basic animalistic needs of human beings, like reproduction, child bearing, fertility, etc. The Kundalini Chakras represent this as the base root, representing the element earth, and is therefore related to our survival instincts, and to our sense of grounding and connection to our bodies and the physical plane. Ideally this chakra or area of the spine brings us health, prosperity, security, and dynamic presence. In Oriental Medicine, it’s the Governing or Du Acupuncture point of Du 1 and 2. These acupoints treat signs such as hemorrhoids, prolapse of anus, mania, epilepsy, diarrhea, and constipation, mania, irregular menstruation, and weakness and pain in the lower limbs.
Going upward to the next level is the area of the spine located below the spinous process of the first lumbar vertebra and ends below the spinous process of the fourth lumbar vertebra. The equivalent Chakra is related to the element water, and to emotions and sexuality. It connects us to others through feeling, desire, sensation, and movement. Ideally this chakra brings us fluidity and grace, depth of feeling, sexual fulfillment, and the ability to accept change. In Oriental Medicine, its acupuncture point is Du 3 going up to Du 5. These acupoint treat signs of impotence, seminal emission, and irregular menstruation, pain in the lumbosacral region, leukorrhagia, sterility, lumbago, abdominal distention, diarrhea and dysentery. From below the spinous process of the eleventh thoracic vertebra upward towards below the spinous process of the ninth thoracic vertebra, is the power chakra, located in the solar plexus and represents fire as well. It rules our personal power, will, and autonomy, as well as our metabolism. When healthy, this chakra brings us energy, effectiveness, spontaneity, and non-dominating power. In Oriental Medicine, the area is called the Don Tian and is an important Qi Gong area for breathing and generating power in Martial Arts. The corresponding Acupuncture points are Du 6 and Du 8, which treats signs such as diarrhea, jaundice, hemorrhoids, epilepsy, and stiffness and pain in the spinal column, fullness in the abdomen, stomachache and lumbago. At the next level of consciousness is the heart level, or is the middle chakra in a system of seven. It is related to love and is the integrator of opposites in the psyche: mind and body, male and female, persona and shadow, ego and unity. A healthy fourth chakra allows us to love deeply, feel compassion, and have a deep sense of peace and centeredness. Oriental Medicine dictates that the heart is the house of the spirit and mind. On the spinal, it is located below the spinous process of the seventh thoracic vertebra up to below the spinous process of the fifth thoracic vertebra. Corresponding acupuncture points are Du 9 and Du 11. These points treat signs of Jaundice, cough, asthma, and distending pain in the chest and hypochondriac region, palpitation, cardialgia, apoplexy with aphasia, and epilepsy.
At the fifth level of consciousness is the chakra located in the throat and is thus related to communication and creativity. Here we experience the world symbolically through vibration, such as the vibration of sound representing language. On the spine, the area is located below the spinous process of the first thoracic vertebra to below the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra. In Acupuncture, it is Du 13 and Du 15. These points treat signs of cough, asthma, epilepsy, headache, malaria, fever, and stiffness and pain in the nape and back. Sixth level of consciousness deals with brow chakra or third eye center. It is related to having an intuitive eye, seeing physically, mentally and spiritually. The point locations are not part of the spine, in terms of Western Medicine, but in terms of TCM, acupoints Du 16 – Du 19, which starts from the nape and 1 cun directly above the midpoint of the posterior hairline to 5 cun directly above the midpoint of the posterior hairline. A cun is approximately 1.3 inches. Acupuncture points on these areas treat signs of aphasia, hemiplegia, and rigid nape with headache, mania, and epilepsy. Seventh and last level of consciousness is related to the crown chakra and is pure awareness. It is our connection to the greater world beyond, to a timeless, spaceless place of all-knowing. When developed, this chakra brings us knowledge, wisdom, understanding, spiritual connection, and bliss. The corresponding location is not on the spine directly, but on top of the head or crown, Du 20, 7 cun above the midpoint of the posterior hairline. No matter which belief system you use, there was always a system represented by the spine, whether it’s the Corpus Hermeticus from Ancient Egypt, the Great Chain of Beings of Renaissance times, Kundalini Yoga as in the Chakras or the Du channel of TCM. Overall, each or all are used to better communicate with nature, personal wisdom of ourselves and the world around us.
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http://www.pacificcollege.edu/ko/acupuncture-massage-news/om-essay-contest/om-essay-contest-2011/880-the-cancer-fighting-health-benefits-of-tea.htmlBy Sean Davis
While frequenting my favorite tea shop in Ocean Beach, I once heard a story about the cancer fighting health benefits of tea. According to the story, the original founder of the tea shop had been diagnosed with cancer several years previous. He had talked to an old Chinese woman who told him “If you drink 100 cups of tea every day, the cancer will be cured.” He started the tea shop in order to help fund his new tea habit and after a relatively short period of time, the cancer had disappeared. Tea is the second most commonly consumed beverage in the world. It is believed to have originated somewhere between northeast India and southwest China and Tibet. No one knows when tea was first discovered, but one creation myth states it was originally discovered by Shennong around 2700 BC. More than likely tea has been around in one form or another since man first learned how to boil water and long before there was any written history. There are six major varieties of tea consumed that come from various subspecies of the plant Camellia Sinensis. These include, white, yellow, green, oolong, black, and pu-erh. There are several steps involved with turning tea leaves into tea, but the different varieties are primarily obtained first by undergoing varying amounts of oxidation before being dry-fired. White and green tea leaves are completely un-oxidized making them the least processed of all the different types of tea. The tea leaves of Oolong and black tea are often shaken or bruised to encourage oxidation before being heated. After Oolong has been partially oxidized heat is applied to halt the process of oxidation and trap the flavor into the leaf. Black tea, on the other hand, is completely oxidized before being heated. Different types of Pu-Erh undergo varying degrees of oxidation, however it is generally un-oxidized like green tea. What makes Pu-Erh unique is that it is fermented before being consumed. Pu-Erh is sort of like the fine wine of teas in that it is classified in terms of how long it has been aged and what region it comes from. There are over 700 known chemicals found in the Camellia Sinensis species. Among these are theanine, theobromine, theophylline, fluorine, bioflavonoids, amino acids, and polyphenols, as well as a form of antioxidant known as “catechins”. Catechins compose up to 30% of the dry weight of a tea leaf. Although they are broken down by the oxidative process used to make black tea they are still found in large enough quantities to measurably decrease the amount of free radicals in the body1. According to the free radical theory of aging, cells begin to degrade because they accumulate free radicals over time. Once cell degradation begins to take place, the cells no longer replicate perfectly and we begin to age. If this theory is true, then tea may actually keep our bodies younger by reducing wear and tear at the molecular level. Several of the chemicals in tea are thought to have anti-cancer properties. The consumption of bioflavonoids, also called Vitamin P, has been shown to produce enzymes which help to eliminate mutagens and carcinogens. Bioflavonoids protect Vitamin C, a strong antioxidant, from being oxidized by free-radicals. Unlike Vitamin C, however, once a flavonoid is consumed it is treated like a foreign body and is rapidly metabolized by the body and excreted through the urine or deposited into the bile. This process of breaking down the flavonoids induces the production of “Phase 2” enzymes which also attack carcinogens and mutagens in the body. Basically, by introducing a small amount of what the body considers to be an irritant, the body goes through a strong metabolic process that removes all irritants, including potential cancer cells. This is similar to one of the current western theories of acupuncture that posits that acupuncture is able to reduce inflammation in the body by first creating a low level of inflammation at a specific site. The body’s response to this low level of inflammation is to reduce inflammation everywhere, not just at the original site of insertion. So in a way, bioflavonoids are like acupuncture for the cells. It has also been recently discovered that flavonoids increase the activation of nitric oxide synthase, which prevents inflammation of the blood vessel walls and lowers blood pressure, both of which are critical in preventing heart disease. Furthermore it is thought that flavonoids play a key role in preventing neuro-degenerative diseases2. The primary form of bioflavonoid found in brewed tea is the catechin. In one study rats were given a single modest dose of a catechin commonly found in dark chocolate. Ninety minutes later a stroke was induced in the rats with the control group showing significantly more brain damage than the group given the catechin9. Catechins have also been shown to protect the heart by breaking down recently formed atherosclerosis by 73% or more3, they protect the skin from UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis4, and they have antibiotic-like properties by acting as a germicidal and germistatic which disrupts the DNA replication process of bacteria5. Theanine, an amino acid derivative found in large quantities in tea, is an analogue of glutamine and glutamate and it is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Glutamine is an amino acid which is used as a source of cellular energy in the mitochondria, similar to glucose. It is also used functionally to repair cells after trauma, burns, and the side-effects from cancer related therapies. Glutamine is consumed most readily by the intestines, the kidneys, activated immune cells, and various analogues of glutamine are marketed as anti-cancer drugs (Azaserine, Acivicin). Glutamate, on the other hand, plays a key role in the citric acid cycle and helps the body to dispose of excess nitrogen. Glutamate is also the primary excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system and it is the precursor to GABA which is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Theanine, although chemically similar to the excitatory neurotransmitter Glutamate, has a weak affinity for the glutamate binding sights in the brain. Instead it is seen to have a strong effect on stimulating GABA production which reduces psychological and physiological stress10. This reduction in stress levels elevates the mood and increases cognitive ability. Theanine is also suspected to bolster the immune system. In one study, tea drinkers were shown to have five times the level of anti-bacterial proteins in their blood when compared to coffee drinkers11. Theobromine, another substance found in tea, is in the methylxanthine class of pharmaceutical substances along with caffeine. It is used in modern day medicine as a vasodilator to reduce blood pressure, a diuretic which can treat edema, and as a heart stimulant which can be used to treat congestive heart failure6. In addition, it has been patented for future use in cancer prevention12. Theophylline, an isomer of theobromine, has been used in the past to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma, however it is found in tea at approximately 1mg/L which is far below the therapeutic dose. In addition to all of the above health benefits associated with drinking tea, research has shown tea to be beneficial to the microflora of the intestines and the fluorine found in tea strengthens the teeth and protects from dental cavities7. In 1999, a study that was published in the Nutrition journal stated that although all of these health benefits have been found in mammals in vitro, the quantities of tea needed to obtain the data far surpassed what the average person would consume in a day8. Since then the vast majority of research that has been done has been overwhelmingly positive regarding the health benefits and the anti-cancer properties of tea. Just to be safe, if one wants to fight cancer by drinking tea, they should drink a hundred cups every day! Works Cited • "Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods – 2007". Webcitation.org. 2009-05-23 • "Studies force new view on biology of flavonoids", by David Stauth, EurekAlert!. Adapted from a news release issued by Oregon State University. • Chyu KY; Babbidge, SM; Zhao, X; Dandillaya, R; Rietveld, AG; Yano, J; Dimayuga, P; Cercek, B et al. (May 2004). "Differential effects of green tea-derived catechin on developing versus established atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-null mice". Circulation 109 (20): 2448–53. • Katiyar S, Elmets CA, Katiyar SK (May 2007). "Green tea and skin cancer: photo-immunology, angiogenesis and DNA repair". J. Nutr. Biochem. 18 (5): 287–96. • Gradisar H, Pristovsek P, Plaper A, Jerala R (January 2007). "Green tea catechins inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase by interaction with its ATP binding site". J. Med. Chem. 50 (2): 264–71 • William Marias Malisoff (1943). Dictionary of Bio-Chemistry and Related Subjects. Philosophical Library. pp. 311, 530, 573. • Mondal, T.K. (2007). "Tea". in Pua, E.C.; Davey, M.R.. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. 60: Transgenic Crops V. Berlin: Springer. pp. 519–535 • Nutrition (Nov-Dec 1999). Tea and Health. 15. pp. 946–949 • http://beforeitsnews.com/news/40184/Dark_Chocolate_Ingredient_Protects_the_Brain_After_a_Stroke_Say_John_Hopkins_Researchers.html • Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja L, Ohira H (2007). "L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses". Biol Psychol 74 (1): 39–45. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.006 • Kamath A, Wang L, Das H, Li L, Reinhold V, Bukowski J (2003). "Antigens in tea-beverage prime human Vgamma 2Vdelta 2 T cells in vitro and in vivo for memory and nonmemory antibacterial cytokine responses". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100 (10): 6009–14. • US patent 6693104, "Theobromine with an anti-carcinogenic activity", granted 2004-02-17
]]>firstname.lastname@example.org (캐슬린 Rushall)OM 에세이 경연 대회 20112010년 9월 2일 (목) 16시 58분 26초 -0700